You are here: Home - Bibliography

last update: 08.06.2017

Reference database

This is a choice of publications concerned with worked bones.


The database contains: 1728 entries.

Number of selected titles: 86

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Labaune, Francoise & Le Cloirec, Gaétan (2008): Le travail de l'os à Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine) à travers un canif à manche sculpté trouvé 3-5 rue de Saint-Malo. in: Bertrand, Isabelle (ed.): Le travail de l'os, du bois de cerf et de la corne à l'époque romaine: un artisanat en marge? Actes de la table ronde instrumentum, Chauvigny (Vienne), 8-9 décembre 2005, Monographies instrumentum 34, 55-63, Montagnac

Labner, Irene (2002): Ein gezinkter Würfel aus Lienz in Osttirol. – Archäologie Österreichs 13, 47-48

Lage, Wolfgang (2009): Schleifknochen versus Schabbahnknochen: Untersuchungen zur Verwendung steinzeitlicher Langknochen von Großsäugern mit konkaven Arbeitsbahnen. – Schriften des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schleswig-Holstein 71, 26-40

Lambrugo, Claudia / Slavazzi, Fabrizio / Fedeli, Anna Maria (2015): I materiali della Collezione Archeologica "Giulio Sambon" di Milano. 1. Tra alea e agòn: giochi di abilità e di azzardo, Sesto Fiorentino

Lang, Felix (2013): The Sound of Bones. Proceedings of the 8th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group in Salzburg 2011, Archaeo Plus. Schriften zur Archäologie und Archäometrie der Paris Lodron-Universität Salzburg 5

Lang, Felix (2011): Activity not Profession. Considerations about Bone Working in Roman Time. in: Baron, Justyna & Kufel-Diakowska, Bernadeta (eds.): Written in Bones. Studies on technological and social contexts of past faunal skeletal remains, 295-303, Wroclaw

Lang, Felix (2010): Bone Working and Productions in the Medieval Castle of Guetrat (Salzburg). in: Legrand-Pineau, Alexandra / Sidéra, Isabelle / Buc, Natacha / David, Eva / Scheinsohn, Vivian (eds.): Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, technological and functional signature, British Archaeological Reports International Series 2136, 87-95, Oxford

Lang, Felix (2008): L’artisanat du bois de cerf à Iuvavum/Salzbourg, Autriche. Les manches de couteau. in: Bertrand, Isabelle (ed.): Le travail de l'os, du bois de cerf et de la corne à l'époque romaine: un artisanat en marge? Actes de la table ronde instrumentum, Chauvigny (Vienne), 8-9 décembre 2005, Monographies instrumentum 34, 335-342, Montagnac

Langley, Michelle C. & Street, Martin (2013): Long range inland-coastal networks during the Late Magdalenian: Evidence for individual acquisition of marine resources at Andernach-Martinsberg, German Central Rhineland. – Journal of Human Evolution 64(5), 457-465

Large, Dounia / Müller, Katharina / Reiche, Ina (2011): Approche analytique pour l’étude des ivoires archéologiques. Les défenses d’éléphant du site de Jinsha (1200-650 BC, Sichuan, Chine). – ArchéoSciences 35, 167-177, pl. 10

Laszlovszky, József & Szabo, Pétér (2003): People and Nature in Historical Perspective, Budapest

Lauwerier, Roel C. G. M. & van Heeringen, Robert M. (1998): Skates and Prickers from the Circular Fortress of Oost-Souburg, The Netherlands (AD 900-975). – Environmental Archaeology 3, 121-126

Lauwerier, Roel C. G. M. & Villari, Pietro (1995): Vee en vlees in de stad Tiel (9de-18de eeuw). Dierlijk bot onderzocht. – Bijdragen en Mededelingen Gelre 86, 175-191

Lauwerier, Roel C. G. M. & van Heeringen, Robert M. (1995): Objects of Bone, Antler and Horn from the Circular Fortress of Oost-Souburg, The Netherlands (A.D. 900-975). – Medieval Archaeology 39, 71-90, pl. IV-V

Lawrence, Andrew & Rohrbach, Urs (2010): Hauptstadt mit keltischen und römischen Wurzeln. – Archäologie in Deutschland 3/2010, 58-61

Laznickova-Galetova, Martina (2010): Le travail des matières d'origine dure animale dans le Magdalénien Morave: l'exemple des aiguilles à chas. – L'Anthropologie 114, 68-96

Laznickova-Galetova, Martina (2010): Technological Signature Non-Utilitarian Transformation of Horse Mandibles. Magdalenian Examples from Pekárna (Moravia, Czech Republic) and La Vache (Ariège, France). in: Legrand-Pineau, Alexandra / Sidéra, Isabelle / Buc, Natacha / David, Eva / Scheinsohn, Vivian (eds.): Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, technological and functional signature, British Archaeological Reports International Series 2136, 107-114, Oxford

Laznickova-Galetova, Martina (2005): Les "spatules" de la grotte de Pekárna (Moravie, République tchèque): analyses typologiques et technostylistiques, en la relation avec le support. – Memoire de la Société préhistorique francaise 39, 221-230

Le Brun, Alain / Davis, Simon J. M. / Cluzan, Sophie / Hansen, Julie / Renault-Miskovsky, Josette (1987): Le Néolithique Précéramique de Chypre. – L'Anthropologie 91(1), 283-316

Le Dosseur, Gaëlle (2010): Contribution of a Craft Production, Bone Industry, to the Question of the Transition from PPNB to PPNC in the Southern Levant. in: Matthiae, Paolo / Pinnock, Frances / Nigro, Lorenzo / Marchetti, Nicolò / Romano, Licia (eds.): Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East May, 5th-10th 2008, “Sapienza” - Università di Roma. Volume 1, 703-719, Wiesbaden

Le Dosseur, Gaëlle (2010): The Neolithization in Southern Levant: Impact of Animal Herding on the Exploitation of Bone Materials, from Reticence to Adoption of Domestic Herds. in: Legrand-Pineau, Alexandra / Sidéra, Isabelle / Buc, Natacha / David, Eva / Scheinsohn, Vivian (eds.): Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, technological and functional signature, British Archaeological Reports International Series 2136, 17-30, Oxford

Le Dosseur, Gaëlle (2008): La Place de l'Industrie Osseuse dans la Néolithisation au Levant Sud. – Paléorient 34(1), 59-89

Leary, J. / Branch, N. / Bishop, B. J. (2005): 10,000 years in the life of the river Wandle: Excavations at the former Vinamul Site, Butler Hill, Wallington, Surrey Archaeological Collections 92, Guildford

Leary, J. (2004): Tatberht’s Lundenwic. Archaeological Excavations in Middle Saxon London, Pre-Construct Archaeology Monograph 2, London

Lefèvre, Christine (2012): Proceedings of the General Session of the 11th International Council for Archaeozoology Conference (Paris, 23-28 August 2010), British Archaeological Reports International Series 2354, Oxford

Legrand, Alexandra (2005): New evidence on bone reduction techniques from Khirokitia – Cyprus (7th millennium calBC). in: Luik, Heidi / Choyke, Alice M. / Batey, Colleen / Lougas, Lembi (eds.): From Hooves to Horns, from Mollusc to Mammoth – Manufacture and Use of Bone Artefacts from Prehistoric Times to the Present – Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group at Tallinn, 26th–31st of August 2003, Muinasaja teadus 15, 105-112, Tallinn

Legrand, Alexandra & Sidéra, Isabelle (2004): Les outils en matiére osseuses. Exemple des sites de Khirokitia (Chypre) et de Drama (Bulgarie). – Dossiers d'Archeologie 290, 52-57

Legrand-Pineau, Alexandra & Sidéra, Isabelle (2014): Looking for New Methodologies for Studying Bone, Antler and Tooth Industry. First Setting of Image Analysis. in: Ma, Xiaolin & Hou, Yanfeng (eds.): Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the (ICAZ) Worked Bone Research Group, Zhengzhou, China, 2013, Zooarchaeology 2, 63-67, pl. 21, Beijing

Legrand-Pineau, Alexandra / Sidéra, Isabelle / Buc, Natacha / David, Eva / Scheinsohn, Vivian (2010): Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, technological and functional signature, British Archaeological Reports International Series 2136, Oxford

Lehmkuhl, Ursula (2005): Die Rohstoffe Knochen, Geweih und Horn und ihre Nutzung. in: Jöns, Hauke / Lüth, Friedrich / Schäfer, Heiko (eds.): Archäologie unter dem Straßenpflaster – 15 Jahre Stadtkernarchäologie in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns, 273-278, Schwerin

Lehmkuhl, Ursula & Schäfer, Heiko (2005): Spiele für Jung und Alt. in: Jöns, Hauke / Lüth, Friedrich / Schäfer, Heiko (eds.): Archäologie unter dem Straßenpflaster – 15 Jahre Stadtkernarchäologie in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns, 361-364, Schwerin

Lehmkuhl, Ursula & Müller, Hanns-Hermann (1995): Werkzeug – Spielzeug – Waffen. – Archäologie in Deutschland 1/1995, 22-25

Lehmkuhl, Ursula (1989): Neue Forschungsergebnisse zum Neolithikum im Norden der DDR anhand archäozoologischer Untersuchungen. – Archäologische Informationen 12(2), 161-171

Lehmkuhl, Ursula (1985): Knöcherne Kernspaltflöten aus Mecklenburg. – Ausgrabungen und Funde 30, 136-144

Lehmkuhl, Ursula (1984): Archäozoologische Betrachtung über Astragalusfunde aus Brandgräbern der römischen Kaiserzeit in Mecklenburg und ihr Brauchtum. – Bodendenkmalpflege in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Jahrbuch 32, 241-251

Lehmkuhl, Ursula (1983): Archäozoologische und typologische Untersuchungen an durchlochten Schweinemetapodien von slawischen Fundplätzen in Mecklenburg. – Bodendenkmalpflege in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Jahrbuch 30, 199-222

Lehnert, Sonja (1997): Beinverarbeitung im mittelalterlichen Bremen, unveröffentlichte Magisterarbeit Universität Bamberg, Bamberg

Leja, Ferdinand (1992): Ungewöhnliche Befestigungsspuren an einem Schädelamulett aus der Saugartenhöhle (Bayern). – Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 22, 219-227

LeMoine, Genevieve (2007): Bone Tools and Bone Technology: A Brief History. in: Gates St-Pierre, Christian & Walker, Renee B. (eds.): Bones as Tools: Current Methods and Interpretations in Worked Bone Studies, British Archaeological Reports International Series 1622, 9-22, Oxford

LeMoine, Genevieve (2005): Understanding Dorset from a different Perspective. Worked Antler, Bone, and Ivory. in: Sutherland, Patricia D. (ed.): Contributions to the Study of the Dorset Palaeo-Eskimos, Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 167, 133-145, Gatineau/Quebec

LeMoine, Genevieve (2001): Skeletal Technology in Context: An Optimistic Overview. in: Choyke, Alice M. & Bartosiewicz, Laszlo (eds.): Crafting Bone: Skeletal Technologies through Time and Space – Proceedings of the 2nd meeting of the (ICAZ) Worked Bone Research Group Budapest, 31 August – 5 September 1999, British Archaeological Reports International Series 937, 1-7, Oxford

Lepore, Lucia & Turi, Paola (2010): Caulonia tra Crotone e Locri Tomo 2. Atti del Convegno internazionale (Firenze, 30 maggio – 1° giugno 2007), Firenze

Leroy-Prost, Christiane (1975): L'industrie osseuse aurignacienne. Essai régional de classification: Poitou, Charentes, Périgord. – Gallia prehistoire 18(1), 65-156

Leroy-Prost, Christiane (1974): Les pointes en matière osseuse de l'Aurignacien. Caractéristiques morphologiques et essais de définition. – Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 71(2), 449-458

Levy, Richard & Dawson, Peter (2008): Structural Analysis, A Tool for Testing 3D Computer Reconstructions of Thule Whalebone Houses. in: Posluschny, Axel / Lambers, Karsten / Herzog, Irmela (eds.): Layers of Perception. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Berlin, Germany, April 2–6, 2007, Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 10, 134-139, Bonn

Lewis Johnson, Lucille (2005): Aleut Sea-Mammal Hunting: Ethnohistorical and Archaeological Evidence. in: Monks, Gregory C. (ed.): The Exploitation and Cultural Importance of Sea Mammals, Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology, Durham, August 2002, 39-61, Oxford

Liabeuf, Brigitte (2001): Tabletterie et coutellerie à Thiers. in: Fournier, Bertrand & Frichet-Colzy, Hélène (eds.): le bois, l'os, la corne, l'ivoire, la nacre. Aspects de la Tabletterie en France, 67-74, Amiens

Liebgott, Niels-Knud (1992): Knochen, Geweih, Bernstein und Walroßzahn. in: Roesdahl, Else (ed.): Wikinger Waräger Normannen – Die Skandinavier und Europa 800–1200, 202-203, Berlin

Liesau von Lettow Vorbeck, Corina (2016): Some prestige goods as evidence of interregional interactions in the funerary practices of the Bell Beaker groups of Central Iberia. in: Guerra Doce, Elisa & Liesau von Lettow Vorbeck, Corina (eds.): Analysis of the Economic Foundations Supporting the Social Supremacy of the Beaker Groups, Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September, Burgos, Spain) 6, 69-93, Oxford

Liesau von Lettow Vorbeck, Corina / Banerjee, Arun / Schwarz, Jens-Oliver (2011): Camino de las Yeseras' ivory collection: advances in analysis technology used in identifying raw material. in: Blasco, Concepcíon / Liesau von Lettow Vorbeck, Corina / Rios, Patricia (eds.): Yacimientos calcolíticos con campaniforme de la region Madrid: nuevos estudios 6, 381-386, Madrid

Liesau von Lettow Vorbeck, Corina & Morales Muñiz, Arturo (1994): Trace analysis on the mammal bones. in: Roselló, Eufrasia & Morales Muñiz, Arturo (eds.): Castillo de Doña Blanca. Archaeo-environmental investigations in the Bay of Cádiz, Spain (750-500 B.C.), British Archaeological Reports International Series 593, 71-80, Oxford

Lister, Adrian M. & Bahn, Paul G. (1997): Mammuts – Die Riesen der Eiszeit, Sigmaringen

Litani, Galit (2013): The World of the Philistines, Ashdod

Lobisser, Wolfgang (2005): Knochen, Geweih, Elfenbein und Horn. in: Daim, Falko & Neubauer, Wolfgang (eds.): Zeitreise Heldenberg – Geheimnisvolle Kreisgräben, 161-162, Wien

Lobisser, Wolfgang (2005): Die Bearbeitung von Holz. in: Daim, Falko & Neubauer, Wolfgang (eds.): Zeitreise Heldenberg – Geheimnisvolle Kreisgräben, 158-160, Wien

Lobisser, Wolfgang (1997): Versuche zum Bau von dreilagigen Beinkämmen, Experimentelle Archäologie in Deutschland Bilanz 1996. – Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland Beiheft 18, 67-85

Lochner, Michaela (2000): Knochenklang – Klänge aus der Steinzeit, Wien

Longo, Laura & Skakun, Natalia (2008): "Prehistoric Technology" 40 years later: Functional Studies and the Russian Legacy, British Archaeological Reports International Series 1783, Oxford

Lopez-Padilla, Juan A. & Hernández Pérez, Mauro S. (2011): The Italian Connection: Production, Circulation and Consumption of Objects made of Ivory and Bone in the Western Mediterranean between ca. 1500 and ca. 1000 B.C.. in: Banerjee, Arun & Eckmann, Christian (eds.): Elfenbein und Archäologie. INCENTIVS-Tagungsbeiträge 2004-2007, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Tagungen 7, 53-61, Mainz

Loponte, Daniel & Buc, Natacha (2012): Don’t Smash Those Bones! Anatomical Representation and Bone Tool Manufacture in the Pampean Region (Argentina, South America). in: Seetah, Krish & Gravina, Brad (eds.): Bones for tools - tools for bones: The interplay between objects and objectives, 117-129, Oxford

Lübke, Harald / Hoffmann, Gerd / Heinrich, Dirk (1996): Erste Ergebnisse interdisziplinärer Zusammenarbeit zum submarinen Ertebølle-Fundplatz Eckernförde-Möwenberg. – Archäologische Informationen aus Baden-Württemberg 33, 125-134

Luca, Sabin Adrian & Suciu, Cosmin (2011): The First Neolithic Sites in Central/South‐East European Transect. Volume II: Early Neolithic (Starčevo‐Criş) Sites on the Territory of Romania, British Archaeological Reports International Series 2188, Oxford

Lucette, Mons / Stéphane, Péan / Romain, Pigeaud (2014): Matières d’Art – Représentations préhistoriques et supports osseux, relations et contraintes, Cahier de la Commission de nomenclature sur l\'industrie de l\'os préhistorique 13, Arles

Luciañèz Triviño, Miriam & García Sanjuán, Leonardo (2016): Los marfiles del Tholos de Montelirio. in: Fernández Flores, Álvaro / García Sanjuán, Leonardo / Dáz-Zorita Bonilla, Marta (eds.): Montelirio. Un gran monumento megalítico de la Edad del Cobre, Monografías, 245-271, Sevilla

Luciañèz Triviño, Miriam / García Sanjuán, Leonardo / Schuhmacher, Thomas X. (2014): Restaurierung von archäologischem Elfenbein am Beispiel von vier chalkolithischen Objekten aus der Siedlung von Valencia de la Concepción (Sevilla, Spanien). – Restaurierung und Archäologie 6, 71-107

Lucy, Sam / Newman, R. / Dodwell, N, / Hills, C. / Dekker, M. / O'Connell, T. / Riddler, Ian D. / Walton Rogers, P. (2009): The Burial of a Princess? The Later Seventh-Century Cemetery at Westfield Farm, Ely. – Antiquaries Journal 89, 81-141

Lucy, Sam / Tipper, Jess / Dickens, Alison (2009): The Anglo-Saxon Settlement and Cemetery at Bloodmoor Hill, Carlton Coleville, Suffolk, East Anglian Archaeology 131, Gressenhall

Ludowici, Babette & Meyer, Wilhelm (2008): Sensation aus dem Eimer – Ein Kamm aus Italien im Leichenbrand. – Archäologie in Niedersachsen 11, 133-135

Luik, Heidi (2013): Seals, Seal Hunting and Worked Seal Bones in Estonian Coastal Region in the Neolithic and Bronze Age. in: Choyke, Alice M. & O'Connor, Sonia (eds.): From These Bare Bones: Raw Materials and the Study of Worked Osseous Objects, 73-87, Oxford

Luik, Heidi & Lang, Walter (2013): Late Bronze Age Elk Antler Tools in the Eastern Baltic Region. in: Lang, Felix (ed.): The Sound of Bones. Proceedings of the 8th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group in Salzburg 2011, Archaeo Plus. Schriften zur Archäologie und Archäometrie der Paris Lodron-Universität Salzburg 5, 173-184

Luik, Heidi (2011): Material, Technology and Meaning: Antler Artefacts and Antler Working on the Eastern Shore of the Baltic Sea in the Late Bronze Age. – Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri 15(1), 32-55

Luik, Heidi / Ots, Mirja / Maldre, Liina (2011): From the Neolithic to the Bronze Age: continuity and changes in bone artefacts in Saaremaa, Estonia. in: Baron, Justyna & Kufel-Diakowska, Bernadeta (eds.): Written in Bones. Studies on technological and social contexts of past faunal skeletal remains, 243-261, Wroclaw

Luik, Heidi (2010): Tracing the Function of the Antler “Points” from the Late Bronze Age Fortified Settlement of Asva in Estonia. in: Legrand-Pineau, Alexandra / Sidéra, Isabelle / Buc, Natacha / David, Eva / Scheinsohn, Vivian (eds.): Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, technological and functional signature, British Archaeological Reports International Series 2136, 255-261, Oxford

Luik, Heidi (2010): Birdhead-shaped antler handle from Lohavere hillfort. – Muinasaja teadus 21, 127-138

Luik, Heidi (2010): Beaver in the Economy and Social Communication of the Inhabitants of South Estonia in the Viking Age (800-1050 AD). in: Pluskowski, Aleksander G. / Kunst, Günther Karl / Kucera, Matthias / Bietak, Manfred / Hein, Irmgard (eds.): Bestial Mirrors – Using Animals to construct human Identities in medieval Europe, Animals as Material Culture in the Middle Ages 3, 46-54, Wien

Luik, Heidi (2008): Could broken Bone combs have had new Lives?. – Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri 12/2, 152-162

Luik, Heidi (2006): For Hunting or for Warfare? Bone Arrowheads from the Late Bronze Age fortified Settlements in Eastern Baltic. – Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri 10(2), 132-149

Luik, Heidi & Maldre, Liina (2005): Bone and antler artefacts from the settlement site and cemetary of Pada in North Estonia. in: Luik, Heidi / Choyke, Alice M. / Batey, Colleen / Lougas, Lembi (eds.): From Hooves to Horns, from Mollusc to Mammoth – Manufacture and Use of Bone Artefacts from Prehistoric Times to the Present – Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group at Tallinn, 26th–31st of August 2003, Muinasaja teadus 15, 263-276, Tallinn

Luik, Heidi / Choyke, Alice M. / Batey, Colleen / Lougas, Lembi (2005): From Hooves to Horns, from Mollusc to Mammoth – Manufacture and Use of Bone Artefacts from Prehistoric Times to the Present – Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group at Tallinn, 26th–31st of August 2003, Muinasaja teadus 15, Tallinn

Luik, Heidi & Maldre, Liina (2003): Luutöötlemisest Tallinna eeslinnas, Roosikrantsi tänava piirkonnas, 13.–17. sajandil. – Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri 7(1), 3-37, Tallinn

Luik, Heidi & Lougas, Lembi (2003): 4th International Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group – Institute of History, Tallinn, Estonia, 26th - 31st of August 2003 – Abstracts, Tallinn

Luik, Heidi (2001): Bone Combs from Medieval Tallinn, from Excavations in Sauna Street. in: Choyke, Alice M. & Bartosiewicz, Laszlo (eds.): Crafting Bone: Skeletal Technologies through Time and Space – Proceedings of the 2nd meeting of the (ICAZ) Worked Bone Research Group Budapest, 31 August – 5 September 1999, British Archaeological Reports International Series 937, 321-330, Oxford

Luik, Heidi (2000): Luust uisud Eesti arheoloogilises leiumaterjalis [Bone skates in Estonian archaeological material]. – Eesti Arheoloogia Ajakiri 4(2), 129-150

Lukes, Alena & Zvelebil, Marek (2004): LBK Dialogues. Studies in the formation of the Linear Pottery Culture, British Archaeological Reports International Series 1304, Oxford

Lyneis, Margaret M. (1988): Antler and Bone Artifacts from Divostin. in: McPherron, Alan & Srejovic, Dragoslav (eds.): Divostin and the Neolithic of Central Serbia, Ethnology Monographs 10, 301-319, pl. I-IV, Pittsburgh

Lyons, Alice (2011): Life and Afterlife at Duxford, Cambridgeshire: Archaeology and History in a Chalkland Community, East Anglian Archaeology 141, Gressenhall

top of page

copyright 2017 by WBRG